Cyprus Problem » History & Negotiations


Sentencing in Cyprus Lasted Civilizations

Cyprus's known history dates back to the 15th century before common era. 1570-1571 in the conquest of the Ottoman Empire of the Hittites, Phoenicians, Assyrians in order in the island, the ancient Egyptians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Muslims, Arabs, British (Richard the Lionheart), have judge connected with the Lusignans, and the Venetians.

The Ottoman Administration in Cyprus
15. at the end of the 19th century the Ottoman Empire, the Eastern Mediterranean, has dominated political, strategic, economic, and religious reasons, Cyprus in 1571 by the handle. Cyprus-based Venetian pirates in their big losses in the Ottoman naval trade in Cyprus has been one of the main factors of carrying out.
on July 1, 1570, the Ottoman fleet, with 50 thousand soldiers and 80 ball, removing to Cyprus. However, after arduous battles in one year in Cyprus was in fact achievable. Cyprus ' most powerful fortress of Famagusta's 1 August 1571, being delivered into the hands of the Ottoman Empire was past all the Island.
Cyprus since 1878 the Ottoman rule 307 years until 1571.

Cyprus: Origins
Cyprus: origins in Anatolia, Turkish Companions. After the conquest of Cyprus, the island's inhabitants and is the producer for the development seen requirements daughter-in-law, Sultan II. In addition to remaining on the island, around 20 thousand soldiers Selim, 10 thousand artisans to be sent to Cyprus in the family decided.For this purpose, according to a "Deportation provision" from Anatolia, Karaman, Rum and Dülkadriye: 151,597 among the zenaat cities and towns, and featured sitting on a sent to Cyprus and their families living in the digits. The owners of this profession in cobblers, tailors, weavers, saddlers, farriers, cooks, small markets, necklace stainless, skinnes, stones, first, kalays and spoons jewelers, makers of head. From this the Turks brought a great vitality to the economic life as soon as possible.
Greece under the Ottoman rule, with the more ' crash was never the case. Megali İdea arose the idea of jump, the two peoples lived together in peace under the rule of the Ottomans is fair. One could say that is a combination of all the peoples on the island lived in peace under the Ottoman Administration in one period is the period of de facto annual this 307. During this period belongs to the Orthodox religion of the local people is related to places of worship, a worship of the Christians had gained the freedom to fully opened again.

Go into the hands of the British in Cyprus
the Russo-Turkish war in 1878, seeing an opportunity in the United Kingdom, "the Russians against help" under the lease with the promise, Cyprus managed to over 92000 However, this rental was temporary. After crossing the island and back again would be in danger. That was part of the Empire of Cyprus. The Sultan rent
Agreement (Ayestafanos-Yeşilköy) before the signature (Law Şahaname without prejudice to certify you muahadenameyi never failing) rating has fallen and then.
However, the United Kingdom, she moved to the island of Cyprus will account for how the annexation. Indeed, the Ottoman Empire Germany by 1. Had found the opportunity to join with such a world war and the annexation of Cyprus by announcing that a published by, each year to pay 92 thousand gold coins should you pay the stopped. On 20 July at the end of the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, 20. the article has been left to the United Kingdom in the island legally.
The first of the British administration, the Greeks Enosis (annexation of Cyprus to Greece) began to escalate their demands.

Enosis, MEGALI IDEA to connect to Cyprus within the framework of the Greece goal.
Word meaning with 'TOP" was the first drawn map of the Megali İdea, which is to say since 1791 Enosis that is another matter. In a sense it can be said that from that date the Cyprus problem exists.
Megali İdea, the word with the meaning "big Budget, big idea". According to the principle of this idea and, by Fatih Sultan Mehmet conquered İstanbul in 1453 and again be addressed, Greece, Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus, Anatolia and extends up to the land of Alexander the great, having been occupied Alexandria, regarded as a Byzantine Empire will be the great Helen. This is the old capital of the Byzantine Empire, as well as in still will be "Constantinople" means of İstanbul.
Greece's request for first time Cyprus 30 December took place in 1918. on October 18, 1828 in the United Kingdom, Russia and France formally for the first time, a note to Greece, which has to be linked to the island itself, the idea of Enosis. The Archbishop of the Greek Church in Cyprus, and the Greek Government, supported by the movement over the years, churches and schools of Enosis in young brains later grafted.
The Turkish Cypriots, the Greek Cypriots by Greece this has to defend their rights against the demands of Greece Enosis always become a colonial by the currently if change, the island if Cyprus, refusing to hand back to Turkey to demand that the real owner. Therefore, the most Greeks from Cyprus in 1960 as one of the major reasons always Enosis have acknowledged, have sought to eliminate this barrier in a variety of ways.

EOKA in Cyprus led by destroying the Turkish community in Greece, Makarios nominee for a terrorist organization that was established to connect.
The first secret talks for EOKA 2 July 1952 in Athens, Makarios was under the direction of. The purpose of the throw off the island before the EOKA the British are, then by destroying the Turkish population with a total destruction of the movement candidate to Greece. Indeed, soon after the British had to be off the island on 21 June 1955, even from attacks without waiting for the British colonial Administration and began the pipe where the Turks.
organized by the Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus, in 1950, of the so-called plebisitte, 95% of vote in favor of the Greek Cypriot community was ENOSİS. By the way, has Greece's official policy of Enosis . Greece, Cyprus has managed to take the problem of the United Nations Organisation in 1954.Greece's slogan in bringing the issue to the UN "self-determination".
Cyprus is the Turkish people the right to "self-determination" they counted and that the principle of the people of Cyprus unilaterally only as a right to be. While in Cyprus, "Cypriot Nation" he is not a nation; It also said that the first party of Greeks themselves. Cyprus has two distinct religion, language and culture are two separate people. exams was the most this undeniable reality Turks in Cyprus, Cyprus does not apply unilateral "self-determination", will be applied to a real sense of "self-determination", it is two people separate the religious language and culture should be applied equally to both the late 1990s.
The Greek Orthodox Church and to perform ENOSİS EOKA, jointly made the Greek Cypriot side to the world about his violent movements, "independence" as a given "liberation struggle" to present works to. While the majority of violent attacks in the event of that day at the colonial United Kingdom was against Cyprus on a bilateral, rather than.
EOKA started the actual violence of actions until 1955, Atatürk's principle of "peace at home, peace at home" by remaining loyal to the Republic of Turkey, which is a peaceful foreign policy in the face of these events is still. the Conference gathered in London in 1955, Turkey, Cyprus is a party on the Etruscans.
in 1956, when asked to be in front of the Cyprus problem, the UN, the Government of Turkey, as well as with public opinion on the need to press the Turkish Cypriot as a whole. Topic postponed some States ' opposition. As an antithesis to the case against the Greeks the idea of ENOSİS was laid out to TAKSİM. Turkey and the Turkish Cypriot leadership on behalf of peace and reconciliation has accepted it, but the Greeks of Cyprus a Greek island have been and continue to insist on ENOSİS.
EOKA in Cyprus Turkish people posed by violence and attacks continue to increase on April 1, 1958, the Turkish Cypriot People against these attacks themselves are taking the support of the motherland with Turkey, the Turkish Strength Agency a resistance organization (TMT) was established. The Greeks did not take action until the start of wide-ranging attacks, TMT.
In the meantime a few more times by Greece to the United Nations are taken under the guise of "self-determination" on the Cyprus issue at the mobile is the real ideas of the Greeks was thoroughly ENOSİS. The fall of the Greek side of the mask and also weighed on the supposed thoroughly TC Government a compromise and have followed it to the 1959 London and Zurich Agreements.

The Zurich and London Agreements
To fight against the Turkish Cypriot people, Enosise, Greece, so the island prior to 1960, and the independent Republic of Cyprus had been one of the most important factors that incidentally.
Turkish Cypriots in the face of Enosis demands have come out with self-determination in every way, eliminating the possibility of realization of a totally one-sided upper Enosis.
The result of collisions between two peoples that advocated against the Turks, Greeks advocating Enosis as a middle way, the independence of the island share the idea was born. Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom, this idea is the USA by then, on February 11, 1958 in Zurich on 19 February 1959 the London agreement and the agreement was signed.
Under these agreements, both in the UK and in addition, two community on the island of the motherland have equal status as the two founding partners. 1959 London and Zurich agreements, prepared in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus are in affiliation with the Alliance and Warranty Agreements take effect, binational, independent Cyprus Republic has been born. This functional Cumhuriyetiydi a federative Association. Sovereignty and independence was given two national society jointly. Main rules was a national society to another, essentially,
According to the President of the Zürich and London agreements, to be the Assistant to the Turkish Cypriot. The Committee of Ministers 7 Rum 3 Turkish members; House of representatives 35 Rum 3 Turkish members; Republican Army 60-40, and officer rosters 70-30 ratio are both society persons. Both communities would have a Congregation Of their own internal affairs to look after. This Assembly has the right to impose taxes for social expenditures. It also would be responsible for the education and Cultural Affairs of religion. Internal security, police and gendarmerie would allow. Who belongs to Community Court criminal cases justices. Five would be separate municipalities in the big city. The official language is Turkish and Modern. Will be conferred the authority to Veto and Deputy President of important issues the majority of the members would be required to separate the Turkish vote. Educational and cultural spaces in their communities both financial help the motherland possibly.
Enosis and Share was forbidden, but the Greek Cypriot leadership has placed the lock Of all former EOKA 'cıları points although the Constitution banning its activities under the leadership of agains personally Makarios Enosis.

Warranty Agreement
In addition to the Zürich and London agreements, Cyprus, Turkey, the United Kingdom and Greece Guarantee Agreement signed between the Republic of Cyprus, "l. item in any State in whole or in part in any political or economic Union is committed not to participate. In this regard, or any other governmental unification would encourage the island's share directly or indirectly declare a ban of movement ". This agreement and the Guarantor States in Cyprus, in the party and without the consent of both sides in the island, the EU has made a full member of the "Republic of Cyprus".

The second is called as follows in article: "Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom, the Republic of Cyprus, taking into account the obligations set out in this agreement, the first, the independence, territorial integrity of the Republic of Cyprus, established the security and at the same time they recognize and guarantee the basic items they order of the Constitution".
4. the last paragraph as follows.
"If the public is not likely to act in agreement or guarantee agreement with each of the three States, each of which established the scheme reserves the right to take action with the aim of setting up again." Turkey, 1974 Peace Operation, that is the agreement 4. based on its right of itself. That's why an international agreement, a Peace campaign in 1974, using the right, it loads  instead of the agreement.

Makarios ' constitutional amendment Proposal
one of the most important features of the 1960 Agreements leading to the island's unification with any other country, that ENOSİS was to be closed.
Respect for these agreements with the Turkish Cypriots, at first the very bottom of the signatures and to perpetuate the binational independence of Cyprus did their best to.Immediately after the signing of the Zurich and London Agreements the Greek Archbishop Makarios as a purpose of the agreements is not as explicitly of themselves will take you to the  as a means of Enosis. On November 13, 1959 in which the objective is essentially Makarios ENOSİS "Island Administration passed into the hands of the Greeks for the first time since the 8 lived," he explains, EOKA's Foundation day is celebrated on April 1, 1960 in Zurich and London Agreements appeared as told us their opinions on:
"Hope and wish are not fully realized with the Zurich and London Agreements. We will continue the struggle to the conquered forts upon submitting the final victory. "
In this mindset, November 30, 1963, Makaryos offers a "constitutional amendment", which consists of 13 item recommendations. This offers the same Constitution "will not be amended," he also covered many basic items and the Turkish side to play a meaningful and effective role in the State mechanism, which allows rights aims to eliminate. These include the right to veto of Turkish Cypriot Vice President, eliminating the; The seats were removed and the delegates eliminated the separate majorities policy decisions to be taken for the most part simple; the Elimination of the separate municipalities, as well as the removal of the Turkish Cypriot Communal critical items. "The people of Cyprus," Cyprus mainly target greek cypriot to destroy the partnership make Turks in minority status, the possible threats.
Remove the barriers to Makarios Enosisin, for this purpose, a plan prepared. According to this plan will propose changes to the item that is in the not 13, forcing the Turks to be imposed in case of goes, the path of the Turks against the supposed event was in the form of "Turks disobeyed the Government" heard, the Cyprus Government is an internal matter of the who.
The constitutional rights of the Turkish Cypriots clearly have aligned against the encroachment. On top of that on 21 December 1963, Cypriots, Cyprus through island-wide attack against on a bilateral, in cooperation with Greece prepared in advance and no name 1960 within 24 hours to put into effect the "Akritas Plan".

Akritas Plan
posted on April 21, according to this plan newspaper PATRİS 1966 Turkish people will be destroyed and the island with a sudden attack on Greece,. Under the plan, codenamed Yorgacis, Minister of the Interior between preparers AKRİTAS, President of Makaryos, Assembly President Clerides on February 16, 2003, in addition to the Greek Cypriot administration, was selected President Tassos Papadopoulos also names like
December 21, 1963, EOKA, Akritas Plan armed action phase and put it into practice. "Bloody Christmas, this week called the Greeks killed hundreds of Turkish, many peoples wounded.
In light of these developments, December 27, 1963, under the command of a British force of the country's three guarantor under the name of "peacekeeping troops on the island. December 30, 1963, where Greeks attacks stopped, the green line separating the Turkish and Greek Sectors of Nicosia. January 1964 in London, attended by the leaders of the three guarantor countries held a Conference on the island community; but failed to get a positive result. March 4, 1964 in UN Security Council resolution "from the Government of Cyprus" 186 violence and bloodshed that will prevent decisions. This decision, together with the Greek Cypriot Administration started to become known as the "Government of Cyprus", at. April 4, 1964, in control of the so-called "Republic of Cyprus" given the UN peacekeeping force on the island. 4 April establishing the Republic of Cyprus, Makarios III, whereas agreements in one-way vote explained.
In the months that followed this, in December 1963, attacks and Greeks in Cyprus on a bilateral injury to hundreds of attacks, they pursue against Turkey Were from the village of expatriate status of 30 thousand, 103, destroyed and plundered the property of the Turkish House. All these attacks at the same time, the mechanism by which the Turkish Cypriots State bodies under these bodies are completely and Greeks monopoly.
Makarios's new policy cracking down on efforts in 1960 Cyprus that generated economic and social with the pressures, he reports of the UN Secretary General is expressed explicitly. 10 September 1964 on and s/5950 dated 2nd paragraph of the report are as follows: as is 222 "against the Turkish Cypriot community, in some cases, a complete blockade in the severity of the likely solution to the Cyprus Government economics applied restrictions to impose on the economic rather than military action to show that using pressure."

1964-1974 period, the Cyprus Turkish people
The Turkish Cypriot people to the exclusion of all bodies of the State, after the attacks, and 11 in 1964, year-long forced to live under an inhumane siege showed the negative impact in all areas.
More than 30 Turkish immigrant, tents, theaters had to Hegel's philosophy in schools. Turkish people from production has been lost. Compressing a section of 3% of the island, from the outside world dimensions Cyprus: communication, transportation, all economic relations are prohibited.
Submitted to the UN Security Council and the decision of the UN Peacekeeping Force in March 1964, conducted intensive against Cyprus on a bilateral economic redistribution of sustained terrorist movements had no effect in the face of the incessant.
The Greek Cypriots, they have all of the economic blockade and other printing methods on the Turkish Cypriots this resistance can't broke before, in 1967, again attacked. Meanwhile, the numbers of hidden ways to the island which Greek troops huddled in 20,000 Turkish attacks against their villages in this role. Many of the attacks against the Turkish Bosphorus and Lefkoniko villages lost their lives or were injured. Attacks against the Turkish Cypriot People and Turkey's stance made it into peaceful ones will use the right to intervene in the genocide caused by not stops on.
among the Greek community in Turkey of the 1967 attacks can now bear arms by force, despite the opposition of Enosis allowed, it should be obtained by other methods that have caused your faith strengthening. This, over time, the Archbishop Makarios III, and in Greece in 1967, at work will create one of the leading ihtilâf issues between the Junta and the Junta of 1974, Makarios would be a blow against the Edit reason.

July 15, 1974 Coup
In Cyprus, the ultimate goal was ENOSİS, but by whom and down each other about which way to Makarios-Junta. Makaryos sent to the Junta leader, Gen. Gizikis of 2 July 1974 has been the proverbial last straw's letter. The Greek Junta's coup launched on 15 July, causing many Greek and Greek life. Makarios, same of dead of total power to players AKEL and EDEK temporarily confiscated and was known as the German was brought to the Turkish Presidency of Nicos Samson. Meanwhile, Makaryos Cuntacılardan, to discuss the status of 19 July 1974 UN Security Council went to New York to make a speech. In this talk, terrorist organization EOKA B, Makarios, by qualifying, it manages and Greece's invasion of the island by the coup in Cyprus yeltendiğini officially unveiled. Thousands of Greek Cypriots were killed by their win in the unmercifully lives and property damage was caused by the 1960 Guarantee Treaty Turkey's crackdown, but rights and perform duties of the Turkish Peace Operation with.

20 July 1974 Happy Trafficking
Turkey's Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit of the period, with the aim of prevent the intervention of the Greek occupation on the island after you have decided, along with the other guarantor state Britain to intervene in order to make calls, 16 July 1974, went to England. The result of the talks was the UK's joint intervention .
On top of that, the Government of Turkey after the Treaty of Guarantee of 1960, the right to unilateral intervention on July 20, 1974, Happy Peace Operations. Turkish Peace Operation to connect to the independence of the island by Greece of Cyprus has escaped and the Cyprus problem, Cyprus in 1960 to build realistic, collectively, successfully sinking and needed to reach a lasting solution to the political and geographic background.
Turkey's intervention in 1974 was of the island resulting from international agreements dealing with business is based on a legal footing and "occupation" is certainly  the European Council's July 29, 1974 in resolution, as well as the date and 573 Athens appeals court on March 21, 1979, of the 92/79 of the decision has been registered.